Resource Planning

What is a Good Employee Utilization Rate? Know How This Key Metric Drives Profitability

July 17, 2023

In the world of professional services, growth is directly proportional to effective time and resource management.

But how do you ensure productive utilization of the most critical resources, i.e., your employees and the time available to meet your organizational goals?

Tracking employee utilization rate is crucial for a business that generates revenue by billing clients for the time spent on projects. In other words, regulating the number of billable hours with the total hours available in a year is the key to achieving your targets.

Having a grip on employee utilization is not only essential for business profitability but also critical for HR to improve the hiring process. Measuring employee utilization provides valuable insights into performance strengths and weaknesses, enabling the organization to identify areas for improvement and capitalize on successful practices.            

You can’t manage what you can't measure!

Organizations can effectively address gaps by analyzing utilization data and focusing on strategies that yield positive outcomes, fostering continuous growth and optimization.

Having said that, effective employee utilization goes beyond the number of hours worked to how productive those hours are for the desired outcome. 

So what is a good employee utilization rate? And how do you calculate it?


  • Employee utilization rate is crucial for service businesses to maximize revenue and achieve organizational goals.
  • It is the percentage of billable hours worked compared to the total hours available.
  • High utilization rates indicate efficiency and revenue generation, but excessive rates can lead to burnout and a lack of workforce planning.
  • Different industries have varying benchmarks for utilization rates, and factors like time management, task delegation, collaboration, and communication influence employee utilization.

What is Employee Utilization Rate?

Before we narrow down our scope to employee utilization, let’s understand what is a utilization rate.

Utilization in business refers to the measure of how effectively a resource, such as an employee or equipment, is utilized against its capacity. It is typically expressed as a percentage and represents the proportion of time or capacity that is used for productive activities compared to the total available time or capacity.

By the same definition, the employee utilization rate is the percentage of client hours worked that can be billed vs. the total hours available for an employee. 

You can’t charge the total hours worked by an employee as billable time because some of it is spent on maintenance tasks. That’s why it is essential to calculate and maintain a good utilization rate to drive the success and profitability of your projects.

It allows you to realistically align the billable hours with the available time by providing insights into resource allocation and revenue generation efficiency.

By monitoring the utilization rate, you can maximize billable hours, optimize profitability and make informed decisions regarding resource allocation and project management. It's a key business metric to determine your team's financial performance and client-driven productivity.

How to calculate the employee utilization rate?

You can calculate the basic employee utilization rate with a simple formula:

Utilization Rate = Billable Hours / Eligible Working Hours

Let’s go through an example.

If Sara is an employee, and she is able to work 1800 hours a year, and out of those 1800 hours, 1400 hours were spent on billable tasks, then

1400/1800 = 0.77

It means Sara’s average employee utilization rate is 77% because her hours worked were 77% billable. 

It is essential to recognize that this benchmark is not universally applicable and can differ depending on the unique goals, expectations, and dynamics of every organization.

What are the implications of overly high or low utilization rates?

A high utilization rate, especially within the recommended benchmark of 75% to 90%, signifies that a company effectively uses its workforce and generates revenue. It indicates that employees are fully engaged in productive tasks, maximizing their potential and contributing to the company's success.

However, a utilization rate that is approaching 100% can lead to problems. It suggests that the team is likely overworked and at risk of burnout, which can negatively affect productivity, employee morale, and overall well-being. Moreover, an excessively high utilization rate may indicate that the business hasn't invested enough time in workforce planning. 

Conversely, a low employee utilization rate raises concerns about productivity and efficiency within the organization. It may suggest that employees are underutilized or not fully engaged in their roles. This could be due to factors such as a lack of skills or training, inefficient processes, or inadequate managerial support.         

A below-average utilization rate can result in wasted resources and decreased productivity, potentially impacting the company's bottom line. In such a case, it becomes imperative to identify the root causes of low utilization rates and take appropriate measures to address them. 

What is a Good Employee Utilization Rate?

Different industries may have varying benchmarks when calculating employee utilization rates. Typically, organizations strive for a below 80% billable utilization, allowing room for non-billable tasks as employees have to handle business correspondence, undertake training sessions, and avoid burnout.

Employee Utilization Rate in Professional Services Organizations: Statista 

According to professional services utilization benchmarks, what is a good employee utilization rate can vary based on the specialized sector. It is crucial to consider industry-specific benchmarks and best practices to determine what is considered a favorable utilization rate.

In software development companies, the average target for utilization rate ranges around 75%. This accounts for the time spent on coding, testing, and other project-related tasks. It is essential to allow some buffer time for collaboration, learning, and non-project activities to maintain a healthy work-life balance.

In digital marketing agencies, the annual utilization rate targets around 60% to 70% is often considered reasonable. This includes time spent on client campaigns, strategy development, reporting, and meetings. The remaining percentage allows for professional development, research, and administrative tasks.

For IT consulting firms, utilization rates typically aim at 80% or higher. Consultants are expected to allocate a significant amount of time to billable client work, with minimal non-client-related activities. This high utilization rate reflects the nature of the business, where billable hours directly contribute to revenue generation.

These examples are not absolute benchmarks but rather provide a general idea of utilization rate targets in digital professional services industries. Each company should determine its optimal utilization rate based on factors such as project complexity, team capacity, employee well-being, and industry standards.

Deviating significantly from industry standards may result in burnout, decreased productivity, or underutilization of resources.

Factors Influencing Employee Utilization

Here are some key factors that impact employee utilization rates :

Time Management and Prioritization 

Effective time management and prioritization skills play a crucial role in maximizing utilization. Employees who can efficiently allocate their time to high-priority tasks and minimize time wasted on low-value activities are more likely to have higher utilization rates.                       

Prioritization involves setting clear goals, scheduling tasks based on their impact and urgency, and avoiding time-wasting activities. Employees can benefit from using productivity tools, setting realistic deadlines, and regularly evaluating and adjusting their work schedules.

Task Delegation 

Delegating appropriate tasks to team members with the necessary skills and capacity can enhance utilization rates. By distributing workloads effectively, organizations can ensure that each employee is engaged in billable and productive tasks.

It allows employees to focus on their core competencies while delegating non-essential or lower-priority tasks to others


Collaboration among team members can impact utilization rates positively. When employees collaborate effectively, they can leverage each other's strengths and skills, leading to more efficient completion of tasks and increased utilization.

Team collaboration is crucial in improving utilization as it promotes knowledge sharing, reduces duplicative efforts, and enhances problem-solving. Employees can leverage their collective expertise and skills by working together, leading to more efficient and productive output.


Effective team and client communication is vital for maintaining high utilization rates. Clear and transparent communication ensures that expectations are understood, deadlines are met, and potential obstacles are addressed promptly, reducing inefficiencies and maximizing utilization.

Organizations can improve employee utilization rates, optimize resource allocation, and maximize productivity by considering these factors and implementing strategies to enhance time management.

Don’t miss: Why Modern Organizations Need Time Tracking Software

Why is it Important to Achieve an Optimal Utilization Rate?

A good utilization rate in an organization brings forth several positive outcomes:

Enhanced Productivity

A high utilization rate indicates that employees are effectively utilizing their time, focusing on billable tasks, and avoiding non-productive activities. The increase in productivity yields more work accomplished within a given timeframe.

Improved Profitability

When employees have a good utilization rate, they spend a significant portion of their time on billable activities, directly contributing to revenue generation. Higher utilization rates translate into increased billable hours and improved profitability for the organization.

Increased Client Satisfaction

A good utilization rate ensures client projects are efficiently handled and completed within the agreed-upon timelines. Clients receive timely and quality deliverables, leading to higher satisfaction levels and strengthened client relationships.

Optimal Resource Allocation

With a good utilization rate, organizations can allocate their resources more effectively. They can identify areas where additional resources are needed or where adjustments can be made to optimize productivity and meet client demands.

Work-Life Balance and Reduced Burnout:

A balanced utilization rate allows employees to have a healthier work-life balance. It enables them to manage their workload effectively, reducing the likelihood of burnout and promoting employee well-being.

A good utilization rate facilitates better project management. With employees effectively utilizing their time, project timelines and milestones can be met consistently, leading to smoother project execution and successful outcomes.

Common Challenges in Attaining a Good Employee Utilization Rate And How to Avoid Them

Achieving and maintaining an optimal utilization rate can pose several challenges for businesses. Some of them can be:

Inefficient Task Allocation

Inefficient task allocation and lack of insight into resource skills can lead to imbalanced workloads among employees. It may be caused by inexperienced resource management, a lack of standardized processes for task assignments, or inadequate insight into employees' skills and experience. This can lead to underutilizing some team members and overwhelming workloads for others, impacting overall utilization rates.

Skill Disparity 

Misalignment between departments and roles results in an inadequate workforce with too few or too many people possessing the required skills, causing low billable utilization, recruitment challenges, and difficulties in project staffing. Maintaining a workforce that aligns precisely with client demands requires accurate forecasting of required skills and a progressive hiring, training, and staffing process.

Evolving Work Dynamics

Evolving work norms, such as remote work and dispersed teams, can disrupt traditional work processes. Companies that fail to adapt to these changes may experience inefficiencies, leading to poor utilization performance. Remote work can introduce communication challenges and mismanagement of resources, impacting utilization rates.

Imbalanced Growth 

Scaling a company involves more than just adding employees. Unbalanced scaling can result in fluctuations in utilization rates. Rapid expansions of departments without proportional increases in client demands can leave employees with insufficient workloads. Conversely, sudden influxes of clients can overload the workforce, affecting quality and causing burnout.

Lack of Efficient Time-tracking

Accurate tracking and monitoring of utilization rates can be challenging, especially with diverse teams, multiple projects, and dynamic requirements. Relying solely on spreadsheets or outdated systems can limit the organization's ability to capture and analyze data effectively, hindering the optimization of utilization rates.

Overemphasis on High Utilization

When organizations prioritize a high utilization target above all else, the importance of delivering high-quality work and ensuring the well-being of their employees takes a back seat. As a result, employees rush through tasks to meet utilization targets. This can lead to dissatisfied clients and damage the organization's reputation.              

Overemphasis on utilization can cause burnout and disengagement among employees, decreasing productivity and creativity. It may also hinder innovation and professional development as employees have limited opportunities to explore new ideas and invest in their growth.

Neglecting employee well-being in favor of high utilization rates can result in higher turnover rates and difficulty attracting top talent. Employees seek organizations that prioritize their overall well-being and provide a supportive work environment.

How To Overcome These Challenges?

Here are some effective strategies to avoid the common pitfalls:                    

  1. Effective workload distribution: The volume and complexity of tasks assigned to employees directly influence their utilization rates. Distribute workloads based on employee skills, capacity, and availability. Avoid overloading individuals and ensure that tasks are allocated evenly among team members. 
  1. Keeping an accurate account of time: Smart time tracking gives you a clear picture of your current utilization and productivity. Streamline processes, automate repetitive tasks, and eliminate unnecessary steps to improve productivity. Look for opportunities to leverage technology and tools that enhance efficiency and enable employees to focus on value-added activities.
  1. Analyze Productivity Variables: For a services business, you need to measure chargeable utilization. Make sure to define project-specific variables that enable you to measure utilization and productivity in alignment with your business and employee performance KPIs. Advanced analysis across departments and roles can reveal structural issues and training needs while considering other factors like planning effectiveness and managerial performance is also important for understanding employee productivity and utilization.
  1. Improve Your Planing: Utilize project planning and resource scheduling software to effectively schedule employees and gather valuable data on planned utilization and productivity of employees. Analyze key performance indicators like planned vs. actual utilization and deliverables to understand employee performance comprehensively.

           Planning and scheduling also aid in identifying and employing underutilized resources, anticipating future skill gaps and training needs, and ultimately             enhancing future productivity and utilization.

  1. Manage expectations: Emphasize the significance of effectively managing customer expectations from the first inquiry to project completion to your team. This leads to happier customers and reduces unproductive tasks. By ensuring everyone understands the project scope, risks, deliverables, and acceptance criteria, you can minimize issues, delays, and budget overruns, optimizing resource allocation for productive work.
  1. Realistic goal setting: Set realistic utilization goals that consider the nature of the work, the complexity of projects, and the need to maintain quality standards. Avoid setting unattainable targets or impossible deadlines that put excessive pressure on employees.
  1. Training and Development: Invest in training and development programs to enhance employee skills and efficiency. Providing opportunities for growth and learning can improve overall performance and contribute to better utilization and quality outcomes.
  1. Encourage work-life balance: Excessive workload and burnout can have a negative impact on productivity and employee well-being. Encourage breaks, time off, and flexible work arrangements to help employees recharge and maintain their productivity levels in the long run.
  1. Implement time tracking tools: Time-tracking software like timegram can help monitor and analyze how employees spend their time. By tracking work hours, breaks, and tasks, you can gain insights into individual and team productivity and identify time wasters to improve employee utilization.

Factor in your organization's unique demands and culture while implementing these strategies. Regular evaluation and adjustment based on feedback and results are essential to ensure ongoing improvement in the employee utilization rate of your business.

Take Charge of Your Time with timegram!         

timegram is a powerful employee performance tracking solution that provides actionable insights into your teams' performance. Its holistic visual dashboard allows you to assign tasks to team members and track progress, ensuring effective resource allocation and on-time completions.

timegram also allows you to instantly see estimated vs. actual time spent on completing tasks, enabling you to calculate utilization rates with accurate information and build realistic timelines for future projects. 

Additionally, it provides detailed insights into projects, tasks, clients, costs, revenue, and employee productivity that helps you identify potential time wasters such as inefficient processes, unnecessary meetings, or distractions. Addressing these areas can eliminate or minimize time wastage and improve employee utilization.

Time tracking becomes easy with pre-built templates for daily, weekly, or monthly timesheets and productivity reports, which can be shared with stakeholders. This data can assist you in identifying bottlenecks, optimizing workflows, and making informed decisions regarding resource allocation.

Furthermore, timegram enables you to easily convert billable time into detailed invoices and charge the correct number of billable hours for maximum profitability. 


The employee utilization rate is a critical metric for service businesses to optimize revenue and meet organizational goals. It represents the percentage of billable hours worked compared to the total available hours. 

Satisfactory employee utilization indicates efficiency and revenue generation. However, it is important to avoid excessive rates that can lead to burnout and highlight a lack of workforce planning. 

Along with the strategies discussed in this blog, timegram can help you deal with the common challenges businesses face in attaining a good employee utilization rate.

Read more about our key features to find out how you can get a bird’s eye view of your team’s capacity without invading their privacy and autonomy.

Or, sign up today for free!


What does 100% employee utilization mean?

A 100% employee utilization rate means that an employee is fully utilized and is working at their maximum capacity, with no idle time or unproductive hours. It indicates that the employee is consistently engaged in productive activities and no time is wasted or unused.

While achieving a 100% employee utilization rate is theoretically possible, it is often not practical or sustainable. Employees have limitations, require breaks, and need time for skill development and personal activities. Striving for 100% utilization can lead to burnout, decreased productivity, and negative impacts on well-being. It is more beneficial to focus on maintaining a balance that allows employees to work efficiently, maintain their well-being, and contribute effectively to the organization's goals.

What is the difference between productivity and utilization?

Productivity and utilization are two key metrics used to assess performance and efficiency, but they measure different aspects of work. Productivity is a measure of output in relation to input and is typically represented as a ratio or percentage. It quantifies how efficiently resources are utilized to produce results. For example, if a team member completes 30 customer work hours in a 40-hour week, their productivity would be 75%.

On the other hand, utilization compares actual output to expected output. It examines the degree to which resources, such as employees or equipment, are utilized in relation to what was planned or expected. Utilization can be expressed as a ratio, percentage, or even a number greater than 1, indicating over-utilization. It provides insight into how closely reality aligns with expectations.

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Sidra Ali Shah

About the author

Sidra is a research scholar and a philosophy nerd who fell in love with language at a very young age. She believes it's words and their combinations that make the world go round. In her free time, she likes to brainstorm with her children.

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